Cardiac C-Reactive Protein High Sensitive

A strong predictor of cardiovascular disease

High sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease

 

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health burden: a high proportion of patients are not classified correctly or even missed entirely for cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment

More than 60% of those who develop coronary events have only one, or even none of the traditional risk factors, and more than half have either normal or mildly increased lipid values1

European Society of Cardiology’s (ESC) guidelines on CV risk prevention use the SCORE risk charts to estimate a 10-year risk of fatal CV disease, which takes into consideration age, smoking status, systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol2

Additional factors can be added to help further improve overall risk assessment2

hsCRP has been shown to be a predictor of CVD in multiple studies

  • Large scale prospective studies in the US and Europe have consistently shown the predictive value of CRP in CVD3,4
  • High sensitive C-reactive protein has been shown to be a better predictor of the risk of cardiovascular events than low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol3,5
  • In a meta-analysis of 22 studies with an average follow-up of 12 years, the top CRP tertile showed a 58 % increased cardiac risk compared to the bottom CRP tertile6

Risk prediction models can be improved by the addition of hsCRP

 

  • The addition of hsCRP to the Framingham risk score led to a net classification of 11.8% and 5.6% for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) respectively1,2
  • More than 20% of all participants with intermediate risk could be reclassified with the addition of hsCRP3

 

The use of hsCRP in risk prediction is recommended by various guidelines

 

  • ESC guidelines recommend that hsCRP may be measured as part of refined risk assessment in patients with an unusual or moderate CV risk profile9
  • If risk is intermediate (10 % – 20 %) and uncertainty remains as to the use of preventive therapies such as statins or Aspirin®, then hsCRP measurement might be useful for further stratification into a higher or lower risk category10
  • The optional use of hsCRP to identify patients without known CVD who may be at higher absolute risk than estimated by major risk factors, specifically, those patients at intermediate risk (e.g., 10 % to 20 % risk of coronary heart disease over 10 years). Result can guide physicians in evaluation further diagnosis or treatment decisions11

  1. Young, I., Rifai, N. (2009). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and cardiovascular disease. Clin Chem. 55, 201-2.
  2. Perk, J. et al. (2012). European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Eur Heart J. 33(13), 1635-701.
  3. Ridker, P.M. et al. (2002). Comparison of C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the prediction of first cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 347, 1557–1565.
  4. Koenig, W. et al. (2004). C-reactive protein modulates risk prediction based on the Framingham Score: implications for future risk assessment: results from a large cohort study in southern Germany. Circulation. Mar 23;109(11), 1349-53.
  5. Yeh, E.T., Willerson, J.T. (2003). Coming of age of C-reactive protein: using inflammation markers in cardiology. Circulation. Jan 28;107(3), 370-1.
  6. Wald, D.S. et al. (2002). Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: evidence on causality from a meta-analysis. BMJ 325, 1202.
  7. Beaglehole, R., Reddy, S., Leeder, S.R. (2007). Poverty and human development: the global implications of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 116, 1871-1873.
  8. Fruchart, J.C., Nierman, M.C., Stroes, E.S., Kastelein, J.J., Duriez, P. (2004). New risk factors for atherosclerosis and patient risk assessment. Circulation 109 (23 Suppl 1), III15–III19.
  9. Myers, G. et al. (2009). (NACB LMPG Committee Members). National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines: Emerging Biomarkers for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease. Clinical Chemistry. 55, 378–384.
  10. Pearson, T.A. et al. (2003). Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation;107, 499-511.
  11. Koenig, W. (2013). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and atherosclerotic disease: from improved risk prediction to risk-guided therapy. Int J Cardiol. Oct 15;168(6), 5126-34.