Patients with a severe TBI are at high risk of post-traumatic events, such as intracranial bleeding or brain edema, which lead to a rise in intracranial pressure and secondary brain damage. In such cases, rapid intervention is essential in order to relieve the intracranial pressure through medication and/or surgery (craniotomy).
S100 serum measurement is proven in monitoring the cerebral status of patients with severe TBI. As the majority of individuals do not have clinically significant intracerebral lesions on CT scan, a negative S100 value is a valuable tool for ruling out pathological findings and preventing unnecessary CT Scanning after minor head injury.
Aid in the management of patients suffering from malignant melanoma: Simple test adds: "In patients suffering from malignant melanoma, especially stage II, III, and IV, elevated S100 serum levels may indicate disease progression. Serial measurements can be useful for follow-up and monitoring therapy success in these patients."7-13
In a prospective multicenter study of 1,309 patients with minor head injury, an S100B cutoff of 0.10 μg/L (the 95th percentile of healthy volunteers) identified those patients with trauma-relevant CT findings with a sensitivity of 99% and a negative predictive value of 99.68%.3
A meta-analysis of 12 studies of adults with minor head injury reported a pooled sensitivity for S100B for the prediction of CT findings of 97% (95% CI, 91–99%) and pooled specificity of 40% (95% CI, 30–51%) This equated to a negative predictive value of >99% (95% CI, 98–100%) at an average prevalence for intracranial findings after minor head injury of 8%.8 Omitting CT in adults with minor head injury and an S100B concentration of <0.10 μg/L would reduce the number of CTs by approximately one-third.8
International guidelines advise that adult patients with mild head injury and no risk factors who have a serum S100B level <0.10 μg/L measured within 6 hours of injury may be discharged without the need for CT.